Tennessee Valley Civil War Round Table

Education and Preservation


Tennessee Valley Civil War Round Table

The Great “What Ifs” of the American Civil War, Historians Tackle the Conflict’s Most Intriguing Possibilities

 The Great “What Ifs” of the American Civil War, Historians Tackle the Conflict’s Most Intriguing Possibilities, edited by Chris Mackowski and Brian Matthew Jordan, published by Savas Beatie, 2021, a Tennessee Valley Civil War Roundtable review by Arley McCormick 

It’s here. This is supporting analysis that addresses alternatives Civil War enthusiasts have considered and debated for years. “What ifs” have no right answer but they certainly challenge the logic and understanding of the known facts or at least the accepted historical facts. Yet this time the authors and editors, having extensive experience researching and analyzing aspects of the War and Lost Cause with basic logic and solid thought and analysis. They create compelling and convincing arguments based upon historical and technical knowledge and each possess a grasp of the character(s) position and perspective. They write impeccably well and they spin an interesting yarn and that is just what is needed to spice up conversation regarding the War Between the States. 

Timothy B. Smith begins with what could have happened if Albert Sidney Johnston had not bled out on the battlefield and his successor not called off assaults because of darkness? And there are other suggestions regarding Shiloh. Then, Kevin Pawlak addresses September 13, 1862; the Maryland campaign and the famous Special Order No. 191 covering Robert E. Lee’s intent lost and found by the Union leadership. 

Dwight Hughes addresses the big international question President Davis waited for; British intervention on behalf of the South. Frank Jastrzembski addresses the impact of Alfred Pleasonton not accepting command of the Army of the Potomac and Kristopher D. White presents arguments that may be valid if General “Stonewall Jackson” had not died. Dan Welch presents an alternative reality describing what may have happened at Gettysburg if General Longstreet’s advice to go around the right were accepted. Then, a question that lingers in every enthusiasts’ mind; What if Jefferson Davis and not been so loyal to Braxton Bragg? Chris Mackowski presents the possibilities if Robert E. Lee had hit the North Anna River really hard and even the Western Theater is covered as Kristen M. Trout challenges a different outcome if Sterling Price’s 1864 Missouri Expedition were successful. Even the Northern political outcome of 1864 is challenged with Jonathan A. Noyalas suggesting an alternative result if Sherman and Sheridan had not set the military conditions for Lincoln’s successful Presidential campaign. And what if Robert E. Lee had encouraged a Guerrilla War in April 1865 and what if Lincoln had lived? Brian Matthew Jordan and Evan C. Rothera have an alternative. Finally, Chris Mackowski and Daniel T. Davis suggest an alternative if General George Meade were captured at Spotsylvania. 

There is a lot to get your head around here and it is supported with suggested reading, graphics and character sketches throughout. Proposing the alternatives suggested will certainly spice up any Civil War discussion among the enthusiasts that try to find a reason for turning West rather than South where all the marbles were lost. 

Turning Points, 1863


Economics & the Homefront, 1863


The Military Situation in 1863


The Summer of ’63 Gettysburg

The Summer of ’63: Gettysburg: Favorite Stories and Fresh Perspectives from the Historians at Emerging Civil War (Emerging Civil War Anniversary Series), By Chris Mackowski, a Tennessee Valley Civil War Round Table review by Arley McCormick

You have enough space on your shelf for another volume of Savas Beatie’s Emerging Civil War Series addressing, possibly, the most written about the battle of the Civil War. There are 8 maps that will not surprise enthustic students of the battle and included are details regarding leaders, decisions, and failures well documented and debated, that contributed to the result each day. The essays from various authors provide an interesting spin including Melville’s poetry and Eric Wittenberg’s contrast of Chancellorsville and Gettysburg. Another essay addresses the commanders of the Army of the Potomac, Joseph Hooker to George Meade; and, also the often slighted first day failure of the Confederate Army to capture Culp’s Hill and Cemetery Hill.

Joshua Chamberlain attracts many authors as a subject of great importance but is only lightly mentioned as writers focus on other aspects of the day’s fighting. After the battle when the guns are silent another essay addresses the impact upon the post war period and for a final word, a description of the 1913 reunion when survivors from North and South gathered on the battle ground to mend the fences that separated them in 1863.

It may be useful to be familiar with the battle, but if not, a more contemporary perspective may offer a solid contrast to support further analysis of the battle, leaders, and events that make the Civil War such a fascinating, devastating, and pivotal event in the history of our country.

Armistead and Garnett – Parallel Lives


Lincoln Comes to Gettysburg

Lincoln Comes to Gettysburg – The Creation of the Soldiers’ National Cemetery and Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address, by Bradley M. Gottfried and Linda I. Gottfried, Savas Beatie, A Tenneessee Valley Civil War Round Table review by Ricardo Jaramillo

In 1863 the Union States that lost soldiers during the Battle of Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863) agreed to the establishment of the “Soldiers’ National Cemetery” (now known as the Gettysburg National Cemetery). The coordinators invited war-time President Lincoln to make “a few appropriate remarks” for the cemetery’s consecration and dedication. The Commissioners were shocked when Lincoln accepted the invitation. At the Soldiers National Cemetery, on November 19, 1863, Lincoln’s remarks followed the famous orator Edward Everett’s two-hour speech. In 272 words in ten sentences, Lincoln delivered his ‘few appropriate remarks’ in approximately two minutes. One hundred fifty-eight years later, a speech he might have finished composing in his room the night before, President Lincoln’s immortal Gettysburg Address, is well-known throughout the free world.

What is not well known, and what the book’s authors provide, is the logistics and political maneuvering conducted in preparation for the cemetery’s design, consecration, and dedication. The Commander-In-Chief only decided to attend on November 17, two days before the ceremony commencement. In addition, fifteen thousand spectators were planning to attend the momentous consecration ceremony, thus making transportation, lodging, and other necessities scarce for a small town of 2,400 people. The task of creating a cemetery befitting the thousands of Union soldiers who succumbed to the battle and were lying on the battleground was monumental.
Dead soldiers lay all over the battlefield. The carnage also consisted of many dead horses, mules, and other creatures. Fellow soldiers made efforts to bury their comrades on the battlefield during and immediately after the battle. The stench was horrific after just a few days and during the cemetery consecration. However, the task of removing the dead soldiers from the battlefield took months. Finally, the disinterment to bury the soldiers in the Soldiers’ National Cemetery began October 27, 1863, with the last exhumed on March 18, 1864. The authors have captured this often omitted part of the cemetery’s creation.

The authors provided interesting information related to the written Address. For example, is the final edition of the Gettysburg Address, as spoken by Lincoln, what we know today? Even though reporters dictated as Lincoln said it, it differs by what the newspapers printed. The Nicolay Copy, named after John G. Nicolay (Lincoln’s personal secretary), is thought to be the most accurate copy of Lincoln’s Gettysburg address. Also, when and where Lincoln completed composing the Address has been questioned by historians. Some propose that Lincoln wrote it on the train to Gettysburg. Others think he scribbled it out the night before the Address, and several other opinions exist.

I enthusiastically recommend this book for both the novice and well-rounded civil war enthusiast.

A Mortal Blow to the Confederacy, the Fall of New Orleans, 1862

A Mortal Blow to the Confederacy, The Fall of New Orleans, 1862, Mark F. Bielski, 2021 Savas Beatie, 194 pages. A Tennessee Valley Civil War Round Table review by Arley McCormick

This volume is a credit to the Savas Beatie Emerging Civil War Series and follows a similar format as previously published books in the series. Mark F. Bielski covers the antebellum years, the advantage of New Orleans as a port to the world, the slave trade, and the debate within the Confederacy’s leadership regarding its importance and defense. He amplifies 1861 as more than the year the war began, but as a year when the reality of conducting a war illustrated the limitations of the Confederacy’s ability to wage war and the constitutional limitations a Commander in Chief possessed to implement any plans approved in Richmond.

There is ample discussion regarding the forts and outer defenses including Ship Island. One annex is devoted to both the Union and Confederate Navy and Army organizations and of course, throughout the book, the characters that played a key role in the establishment of New Orleans and the State of Louisiana, National policy, military decision making, and failures to act decisively.

This is another excellent reference and guide to the numerous locations in and around New Orleans that became targets and points of interest created by the events of the American Civil War.

Grant’s Left Hook, The Bermuda Hundred Campaign, May 5 – June 7, 1864

Grant’s Left Hook, The Bermuda Hundred Campaign, May 5 – June 7, 1864
by Sean Michael Chick, Savas Beatie, A Tennessee Valley Civil War Round Table
(July 2021) by Emil L. Posey

After being promoted by President Lincoln to Lieutenant General (at the time
only the second in our history to hold that rank) and assigned to command of all
Union armies, Grant developed and implemented a coordinated strategy to bring
the war to an end. He sent Maj. General Tecumseh Sherman with three Union
armies (of the Tennessee, of Ohio, and of the Cumberland) south from
Chattanooga into Georgia to capture Atlanta and Maj. General George Gordon
Meade’s Army of the Potomac southward from the Rapidan River in northern
Virginia towards Richmond. Grant accompanied the Army of the Potomac. One
of the supporting operations would be conducted by Maj. General Benjamin
Franklin Butler’s Army of the James. It would ascend the James River with
something over 30,000 men towards Richmond and invest the city from the
south. In doing so, it would act as a detached left wing for the Army of the
Potomac, hence the title of this book.

There are two themes in this book. One is a detailed description of the military
operations undertaken by this “left hook,” including the organization, objectives,
performance, and personalities of both sides. Mr. Chick’s analyses of objectives,
maneuvers, and results are meticulous and insightful. The other theme, which I
found even more interesting, is a character study of Butler himself. Of particular
interest is the deteriorating relationship between Grant and Butler, never good
at its best. The first sentence of Mr. Chick’s first chapter sets the tone in this
regard, “In a war noted for contentious personalities, few could compete with
Maj. Gen. Benjamin Butler.” To use a modern aphorism, Butler was a real piece
of work. While Butler had his moments in the field, overall, he was a mediocre
general officer moved too often by political ambition rather than battlefield
exigencies. He was also unprincipled and larcenous, character flaws to which he
continuously succumbed.

Mr. Chick provides context for events throughout, supported by a large
number of photographs, maps, and biographical profiles of key individuals. He
includes a detailed driving tour for those interested in viewing the ground firsthand,
six appendices on various topics (several of which are authored by
historians in addition to Mr. Chick, and two of which expand on Butler himself),
a detailed order of battle for both sides, and a suggested reading list for further

This is a great read on a topic that is too often treated as a sideshow in Civil
War histories. While not decisive for either side, the campaign was of great
importance to Lee’s efforts in response to Grant’s Overland Campaign. It is a
useful work for both the casual reader and more experienced students of the
Civil War.

Mr. Chick is a New Orleans native with an undergraduate degree from the
University of New Orleans and a Master of Arts from Southeastern Louisiana
University. He is currently a New Orleans tour guide who gives one of the only
guided tours of the French Quarter concentrating on the American Civil War and
slavery. He also volunteers at the Historic New Orleans Collection and writes for
NOLA Defender. His first book was The Battle of Petersburg, June 15–18, 1864.

Your reviewer is Emil L. Posey, member in good standing of the TVCWRT. His work
history spans almost 45 years of military and civilian service to our country. He retired
from NASA/George C. Marshall Space Flight Center on December 27, 2014. He has a
bachelor’s degree in Political Science from Hood College, Frederick, Maryland; is a former
president of the Huntsville chapter of the National Contract Management Association, a
life member of both the Special Forces Association and the 175th Infantry Association,
and a member in good standing of Elks Lodge 1648 (Huntsville, AL). He is a dedicated
bibliophile and a (very) armchair political and military enthusiast.

Unlike Anything That Ever Floated, the Monitor and Virginia and the Battle of Hampton Roads, March 8-9, 1862

Unlike Anything That Ever Floated, The Monitor and Virginia and the Battle of Hampton Roads, March 8-9, 1862, by Dwight Sturtevant Hughes, Savas Beatie, 194 pages, a Tennessee Valley Civil War Round Table review by Arley McCormick

This is another instalment in the Emerging Civil War Series that will delight Navy enthusiasts and others. The author, Mr. Hughes, is a former Naval officer and well suited for describing one of the most exciting innovations to America’s sea power. In ten quick chapters he describes the technical aspects of the CSS Virginia and Monitor, the people that dared to dream what was possible, man it in war, and make history.

Contrasts of technology innovation compared to the standard ship of the line, the maneuver limitations and challenges, and the impact of weather and shipmates on the days and hours preceding the fight that has inspired writers for decades is well defined. There is ample discussion of the impact and context of war facing the Confederacy in the early months of 1862 and the administrative decisions and actions that proceeded construction and destruction of vessels in the fight. Excellent narratives detail the fight with supporting maps and topics that aroused the press, military leadership, and future historians and give clear unequivocal clarity to the events of the fight.

Readers will appreciate the abbreviated biographies of many key people who influenced and fought the battle on the water as they represent the character of America’s fighting men of the day. There is ample insight from various participants on the day that illustrate the fear, training, and memorable events. John V. Quarstein provides an excellent Afterword describing events most readers seldom pursue regarding ships, technology, and presidential guidance. And, Annexes provide ample tour guidance and orders of battle.

This is certainly a useful primer from the Emerging Civil War Series to add to your collection.

Meade and Lee at Rappahannock Station, The Army of the Potomac’s First Post Gettysburg Offensive, from Kelly’s Ford to the Rapidan, October 21 to November 20, 1863

Meade and Lee at Rappahannock Station, The Army of the Potomac’s First Post-Gettysburg Offensive, From Kelly’s Ford to the Rapidan, October 21 to November 20, 1863, By Jeffrey Wm Hunt, Savas Beatie, 283 pages, 2021. A Tennessee Valley Civil War Round Table Review by Arley McCormick.

There were many more battles to fight in the Eastern Theater (1863) after Gettysburg and there were distractions in the Western Theater and Trans-Mississippi Theater. This title is the third of a four-volume series devoted to the war in Virginia after Gettysburg and focuses on the Army of the Potomac (AoP) and the Army of Northern Virginia (AoNV) meeting at Rappahannock Station and Kelly’s Ford. The commanders are General George Gordon Mead, commander of the AoP, and General Robert E. Lee, commanding the AoNV.

The author, Jeffrey William Hunt, illustrates the characters that play key roles in these contests and frame their action with strategic considerations offered from General Halleck and President Abraham Lincoln in Washington, adding well documented operations analysis considered by both Commanders and some of their subordinates. The drama eventually played out on the battlefield is antagonized by the national press and Washington bureaucrats judging General Meade’s inaction and comparing him to the previous AoP Commander, General McClelland, suggesting General Lee’s superiority.

Jeffrey William Hunt is Director of the Texas Military Forces Museum and an adjunct professor of History at Austin Community College, where he has taught since 1988. His experience is clearly evident as he transitions easily from the a discussion on operational art to unit movements such as Longstreet’s departure to the Western Theater with his 19,000 First Corps troops reducing General Lee’s troop strength facing the AoP. He addresses General Mead’s consideration of moving behind the repair of the O&A railroad, posting formations along the way to protect supply lines from Confederate raiders, and the personal overt criticism of allowing Lee to get away from Gettysburg and not aggressively pursuing him until November.

Mr. Hunt’s description of each tactical scene is accompanied with antidotes of soldiers that experienced the contest as documented in diaries, letters, and other recorded formats of the era including the official records. He, in dramatic fashion, illustrate both the courage and the sacrifice soldiers in blue and gray willingly contributed to win the day.

This is an exceptionally well written and documented publication and the challenge of troops on the ground and the maps depicting the assorted positions of the Armies are sufficient to illustrate troop movement and contact.

Siege of Vicksburg: Presentation and Lecture Notes

Patriots Twice – Former Confederates and the Building of America after the Civil War

Patriots Twice: Former Confederates and the Building of America after the Civil War, Stephen M. Hood, 341 pages (e-book/Kindle); 256 pages (hardcover), Savas Beatie Publishing, 2020. This is a Tennessee Valley Civil War Round Table review by Lee Hattabaugh.

The men who fought and served so bravely for what they believed in the War Between the States continued that service to rebuild their reunited country long after the fighting ended in 1865. They were farmers, merchants, soldiers, lawyers, politicians, and leaders before the War and when they returned to their homes following the surrender of the Armies, they continued in these roles. They founded cities, companies, and universities. They were governors, judges, ambassadors, and some even answered the call to became soldiers again. Mr. Hood presents these stories and so much more in this unique and timely book.
For over forty years following the cessation of hostilities, Americans from both sides of the conflict struggled to rebuild and reunite the States under a single government. To accomplish this, the former enemies worked toward this common goal and did so in a time-honored tradition of loyalty, duty, and selfless-service. Mr. Hood’s exhaustive research has identified many of the former Confederates who served the new United States of America.

Following the author’s acknowledgement of those who helped in with research, including a few names your reviewer recognized as personal acquaintances, the book contains eight parts which are defined by the various roles filled including: presidential appointments, Congress, military, state governors, city founders, officers in professional societies, higher education/universities, and Native Americans/others. Also included are an appendix with additional names and information, a full bibliography, and an index. Some of the men who impacted and affected multiple sections of American society are found in appropriate chapters, often with additional information when they are mentioned more than once. This creates some repetition in the text, but it serves to highlight the importance of these men to the new American society; there are also many photographs included.

In correspondence with the author, I was told that over three years of research went into this particular work and the response to it has been tremendous on several fronts. Mr. Hood included a quote from Robert E. Lee written during the post-war years during his tenure as president of Washington & Lee University. Lee wrote, in words that still apply today, “I think it the duty of every citizen in the present condition of the Country, to do all in his power to aid in the restoration of peace and harmony.” I believe Mr. Hood has done his part to live up to these ideals in Patriots Twice.

Inspired by the current cultural, political and scholastic movements, the stories and information provided by Mr. Hood in Patriots Twice are especially poignant and important in light of the removal, relocation, and destruction of Confederate monuments and cemeteries we see in our country today. Reading about how our ancestors were able to set aside their differences to rebuild their broken country is a lesson worth learning for all Americans. I strongly encourage you to read this book and learn these lessons for yourself.

Interview with the Author, Sam Hood, by the TVCWRT reviewer Lee Hattabaugh

Lee Hattabaugh: What prompted you to write this book?
Author: Sam Hood: Like most rational people, I was appalled at the destruction of Confederate (and other) history by extremists. I thought surely former Confederates accomplished much in the reunited nation.

Lee Hattabaugh: How long did the research take?
Author: Sam Hood: I spent two years–off and on–researching, and a year organizing, writing, editing, and prepping the book for publication.

Lee Hattabaugh: I noted some repetition in your book. Could you elaborate on your intent?
Author: Sam Hood: You are right, but it was necessary due to the organization and presentation that I chose so the book could not only be something to be read for pleasure, but also as a tool for those fighting to save specific Confederate landmarks and monuments. I wanted to present my research not as a simple alphabetical list/roster, but in categories. The reason is that–for example–someone at a university is trying to save a building named for a Confederate veteran, they can go to my book, find the university, and see the CS veterans who were involved in the founding or development of the school. The same with a US military base…you can go to my chapter on “US Military” and read of the postwar US Army officers that had been Confederates. Thus, I organized the book to be a useful tool for those working to save Confederate memorials.
One problem; many Confederates show up in multiple categories/chapters. For example, some Confederates were presidents of the AMA, American Surgical Society, etc, and also founded medical schools. So I had to present them in the “Higher Education” and “National Professional Organizations” categories. Also, there were former Confederates who were college administrators and also US diplomats. And, of course, even inside a chapter, if a Confederate taught at multiple universities, I had to show him in each university’s section. Take for example, people are trying to save Confederate-named buildings at Virginia Tech, and others are trying to save Confederate memorials at the US Naval Academy. Former Confederate Scott Shipp was involved in both institutions, so he had to be listed as a president in the Virginia Tech section, and also in the US Naval Academy section because he served on the Board of Visitors.
I listed a veteran in every category and section where he would apply, but I only gave a detailed biography of the veteran in one place…not everywhere he appears.

Lee Hattabaugh: What impressed you most during your research that you didn’t feel fit the purpose of your narrative?
Author: Sam Hood: I only wished that I could have included more accomplished ex-Confederates. Book size constraints dictated that I limit the number of characters.

Lee Hattabaugh: What is your next project?
Author: Sam Hood: I have no Civil War history projects on the horizon right now. The college soccer program that I founded and coached in the late 1970s-early 80s, Marshall University, just won its first NCAA Div. 1 national championship and I am organizing a pictorial book on the rise of the program.

Defending the Arteries of Rebellion; Confederate Naval Operations in the Mississippi River Valley, 1861-1865

Defending the Arteries of Rebellion; Confederate Naval Operations in the Mississippi River Valley, 1861-1865, by Neil P. Chatelain, Savas Beatie, 339 pages, 2020, Tennessee Valley Civil War Round Table review by Arley McCormick

This book may become the “go to reference” documenting the Confederate Naval Operations in the Western Theater. Hundreds of pages are on the shelves of the War Between the States enthusiasts and historians that address the belligerent Army’s effort to secure or defend the influential waterways of the Western Theater, but none concentrate as comprehensively on the Confederate Navy.

Many of the most decisive moments documented by the author are accented by the personal accounts of those who were responsible or close to the action, and he addresses both the strategic aims of President’s Abraham Lincoln and Jefferson Davis. He includes the Confederate innovations that ultimately failed to secure the tributaries from Union control, but startled the U.S. Navy and opened the door for increased emphasis on remotely detonated torpedoes and armament.

Confederate defensive measures are explained in the context, scope, means, and performance of Confederate Naval and Army forces defending the Mississippi River, its tributaries, and more detail regarding the defense of fortified towns of Vicksburg, Mississippi and Port Hudson, Louisiana.

The author documents both Confederate and Union governments logic behind building a riverine force that contributed to the campaigns on the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers in Tennessee as well as the Yazoo in Mississippi, the Arkansas River in Arkansas, and the Red River campaign of 1864; and of course the Navy view of the capture of New Orleans. With few exceptions, all of these areas are frequently analyzed, debated, and illustrated from the Union forces perspective and casually address the Confederate Navy effort. The authors research certainly provides comprehensive coverage of the courage and initiative invested by Confederate sailors, marines, soldiers and contractors to challenge the more numerous and better armed U.S. Navy.

Many authors have chronicled the effort of the U.S. Navy during the Civil War, but Neil Chatelain clearly achieved his goal of documenting the Confederate effort to organize a Navy both on the high seas and inland waterways and is nothing short of a monumental achievement.

Embattled Capitol; a guide to Richmond during the Civil War

Embattled Capitol; a guide to Richmond during the Civil War, by Robert M. Dunkerly and Doug Crenshaw, Savas Beatie, 194 pages, Emerging Civil War Series. A Tennessee Valley Civil War Round Table review by Arley McCormick

Embattled Capitol is another installment of the Emerging Civil War series published by Savas Beatie. It is a quick, informative read. Robert M. “Bert” Dunkerly is a historian, award-winning author, and speaker who is actively involved in historic preservation and research. He works as a park ranger at Richmond National Battlefield Park and Doug Crenshaw, a longtime volunteer for Richmond National Battlefield, leads tours of the battlefields around the former Confederate capital and is a member of the Richmond Civil War Roundtable.

Richmond encapsulates a mini history of the Confederacy complete with involvement in the slave trade, home to local units that fought the good fight, hospitals, prisons, cemeteries, and an abundance of battles and battlefields that surround the city testify to the intent to preserve the city and government. And, this guide also addresses more recent museums and landmarks including reconstruction and life after the confederacy.
Most casual and committed students of the Civil War are aware of the cry from the New York Tribune citing “On to Richmond” as a quick end to the Southern rebellion. And why not, it was the symbol of an unacceptable government; its capitol. Richmond’s story is the story of the Confederacy in a single land mark. It suffered famine, riots, possessed notorious prisons, Confederate martial law, extensive construction for defense and eventually Federal occupation. It was the home of Libby and Belle Isle Prison, industry, (Tredeger Iron Works), and the White House of the Confederacy. The dreams of an independent nation crushed by assorted reasons that capture the imagination of historians, novelists, and cinema
The authors begin with Richmond’s journey long before the Civil War and recount the February 1861 failure of Virginia to leave the Union and how Lincoln, with a call for troops to put down the rebellion, pushed Virginia into the Confederate fold and ultimately by May was its Capitol.
The authors very succinctly review the impact of war on the community as train loads of wounded and captured Union soldiers changed the landscape of Richmond after First Manassas and they continue the narrative, supported by maps, short descriptions of battles near the city and the ultimate fall to the Union Army.

Appendix C – The Most Important Convention That Has Been Assembled in This State Since the Year 1776: The Virginia Secession Convention, stands out. Rob Orrison lays out the Secession Convention in detail.
Anyone taking a trip to Richmond needs this guide.

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